José Bonifácio de Andrada e Silva
|Secretary of State of Imperial Affairs|
Kingdom Affairs (Jan–Sep 1822)
30 October 1822 – 17 July 1823
|Preceded by||Baron of Santo Amaro|
|Succeeded by||José Joaquim Carneiro de Campos|
16 January 1822 – 28 October 1822
|Preceded by||Marcos de Noronha e Brito|
|Succeeded by||Baron of Santo Amaro|
|Secretary of State of Foreign Affairs|
16 January 1822 – 16 July 1823
|Preceded by||Office established|
|Succeeded by||José Joaquim Carneiro de Campos|
22 June 1831 – 6 October 1833
3 May 1823 – 12 November 1823
|Born||13 June 1763|
Santos, São Paulo, State of Brazil, Portuguese America
|Died||6 April 1838 (aged 74)|
Niterói, Rio de Janeiro, Empire of Brazil
Narcisa Emília O'Leary
(m. 1790; died 1829)
|Alma mater||University of Coimbra|
José Bonifácio de Andrada e Silva (Portuguese pronunciation: [ʒuˈzɛ boniˈfasju dʒi ɐ̃ˈdɾadɐ i ˈsiwvɐ]; 13 June 1763 – 6 April 1838) was a Brazilian statesman, naturalist, mineralist, professor and poet, born in Santos, São Paulo, then part of the Portuguese Empire.
He was one of the most important mentors of Brazilian independence, and his actions were decisive for the success of Emperor Pedro I. He supported public education, was an abolitionist and suggested that a new national capital be created in Brazil's underdeveloped interior (effected over a century later as Brasília). His career as naturalist was marked by the discovery of four new minerals.
In 1800, Bonifácio was appointed professor of geology at Coimbra, and soon after inspector-general of the Portuguese mines; and in 1812 he was made perpetual secretary of the Lisbon Academy of Sciences. Returning to the Brazil in 1819, he urged prince regent Pedro to resist the recall of the Lisbon court, and was appointed one of his ministers in 1821. When the independence of Brazil was declared, Bonifácio became minister of the interior and of foreign affairs; and when it was established, he was again elected by the Constituent Assembly. He was also the author of the abolition project in Brazil, presented to the Constituent Assembly in 1823. But his democratic principles resulted in his dismissal from office in July 1823.
Career in Europe
José Bonifácio spent part of his life in Europe. In his travels around Europe he studied chemistry and mineralogy with other scientists. He collected data, carried out scientific experiments and discovered four new minerals[which?] and eight previously unknown species. The mineral andradite is named after him. Among his other discoveries was petalite, a lithium-containing material, first discovered by Bonifácio toward the end of the 18th century on a trip to Sweden; it was in this mineral that Swedish chemists first discovered lithium. He also was the first to discover another important lithium-containing mineral, spodumene, from the same source, the island of Utö in the Stockholm Archipelago of Sweden.
In 1797 he was elected a foreign member of the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences.
Bonifácio graduated with degrees in Law and Natural Philosophy from the University of Coimbra, he joined the Lisbon Academy Sciences. He taught Geognosy at the University of Coimbra in Portugal. Knowing twelve languages, he could speak four.
Return to Brazil
In 1819, he travelled back to Brazil where he continued to conduct scientific research. A talented man having an unquiet temperament, he was also appointed Minister for Kingdom and Overseas Affairs and became the de facto prime minister.
His relationship with the prince became incompatible and he decided to join the opposition. In 1823 he was exiled and went to live in Bordeaux where, in 1825, come out his "Poesias Avulsas" (Sundry Poetries). To publish them he used the pseudonym Américo Elísio. On the dissolution of the Assembly in November (the Night of Agony), he was arrested and banished to France, where he lived in exile near Bordeaux until 1829, when he was permitted to return to Brazil.
In 1831 when Dom Pedro I abdicated from the throne, he was appointed by the former Emperor to be the tutor of the Emperor's son. Since he did not agree with the Regent's government he tried to reestablish the Empire. After being again arrested in 1833 and tried for intriguing on behalf of Dom Pedro I, he passed the rest of his days in retirement at the city of Niterói. He lost his duties as tutor and was accused of being a traitor, but he was eventually pardoned.
Career in literature
José Bonifácio had also been engaged in Literature. His work Poesias Avulsas that come out in Bordeaux were republished in Brazil, in 1861, by the publisher Laemmert. In Brazil it received the title "Poesias" (Poetries) and the publication had the coordination of Joaquim Norberto de Sousa. In 1942 Afrânio Peixoto prepared another issue through the Brazilian Academy of Letters. This work, prefaced with a text by Sérgio Buarque de Holanda, was also published in a collection, as Volume I, idealized by the "Instituto Nacional do Livro" (The National Book Institute), appearing in 1946 with the title Poesias de Américo Elísio [Américo Elísio's Poetry]. His poetry shows a naturalistic pantheism that expresses his intellectual character and scientific curiosity.
His scientific, political and social works are published in Volume III, compiled and reproduced by Edgar Cerqueira Falcão with the title Obras científicas, politicas e sociais de José Bonifácio de Andrada e Silva. Its third edition came out in 1963 to celebrate the bicentennial of the Patriarch of the Independence.
The mineral andradite was named after José Bonifácio.
Prince Regent Pedro of Braganza (pointing) with Andrada e Silva (in civilian clothes) and others on the deck of the Brazilian frigate União, 8 February 1822
The Founding of the Brazilian Fatherland, a 1899 allegorical painting depicting Andrada e Silva with the imperial flag and three major ethnic groups in Brazil
Portrait by Décio Villares (1851–1931)
With the Viscount of Cairu (left)
Drawing by S. A. Sisson, between 1858 and 1861
Statue in Rio de Janeiro
Monument to the Andrada brothers in Santos
Plaque at the University of São Paulo Law School
- Maxwell, Kenneth (2003). Naked Tropics: Essays on Empire and Other Rogues. Routledge. p. 142. ISBN 978-0-415-94577-6.
- public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Andrada e Sylva, Bonifacio Jozé d'". Encyclopædia Britannica. Vol. 1 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. p. 967. One or more of the preceding sentences incorporates text from a publication now in the
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- BARRETO, Vicente. Ideology and politics in the thought of José Bonifácio de Andrada e Silva. Rio de Janeiro: Zahar, 1977.
- Mansfield, J (June 2012). "The geology of Utö". Dianium Science.
- Special issue of the bulletin of the Library of the Chamber of Deputies of Brazil. Bibliography regarding José Bonifácio. Brasilia, 1963.
- CALDEIRA, Jorge (org.). José Bonifácio de Andrada e Silva. (Col. Formadores do Brasil). São Paulo: Ed. 34. 2002.
- CAVALCANTE, Berenice. José Bonifácio: reason and sensibility, a history in three times. Rio de Janeiro: FGV, 2001.
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- DOLNIKOFF, Miriam (org.). Projects for Brazil, José Bonifácio de Andrada e Silva. São Paulo: Cia. das Letras, 1998.
- DRUMOND, A. M. V. Annotations to a biography in vol. XIII dos Anais da Biblioteca Nacional.
- FALCÃO, Edgar Cerqueira de (org.). Scientific, political and social works of José Bonifácio de Andrada e Silva. Monumental edition celebrating the bicentennial anniversary of his birth (1963). Brasília: Câmara dos Deputados, 2006.
- GRAHAM, Maria. Journal of a voyage to Brazil and residence there during part of the years 1821, 1822, 1823. Belo Horizonte, Itatiaia; Publishing department of the University of São Paulo, 1990.
- MONTEIRO, Tobias. History of the Brazilian Empire. Rio de Janeiro: F. Briguiet & Cia. Editora, 1927, 1938.
- ROCHA POMBO, José Francisco da. History of Brazil. Edited by Helio Vianna. São Paulo: Edições Melhoramentos, 1963.
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- SOUSA, Alberto. The Andradas (3 vols.). São Paulo: Typographia Piratininga, 1922.
- VARELA, Alex Gonçalves. I swear by my honor as a good vassal and good Portuguese man. An analisis of the scientific annotations of José Bonifácio de Andrada e Silva (1780–1819). São Paulo: Annablume, 2006.