Weimar Triangle

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Political map of the "Weimar Triangle"
Political map of the "Weimar Triangle"
Official languagesFrench
German
Polish
Membership
Establishment28–29 August 1991
Area
• Total
1,314,075 km2 (507,367 sq mi)
Population
• 2022 estimate
Increase 190,349,334
GDP (PPP)2023 estimate
• Total
Increase $11.1 trillion[1]
GDP (nominal)2023 estimate
• Total
Increase $7.9 trillion[2]

The "Weimar Triangle" (French: Triangle de Weimar; German: Weimarer Dreieck; Polish: Trójkąt Weimarski) is a regional alliance of France, Germany, and Poland created in 1991 in the German city of Weimar. The group is intended to promote co-operation between the three countries in cross-border and European issues.[3]

It exists mostly in the form of summit meetings between the leaders of the three countries, and of their foreign ministers. The collaboration between member states includes inter-parliamentary contacts, military, scientific and cultural co-operation. The most recent summit of leaders occurred in Paris on 12 June 2023.

History[edit]

The Weimar Triangle was established in the German city of Weimar in 1991, aimed at assisting Poland's emergence from Communist rule. Attending the meeting were the Foreign Ministers of each state: Roland Dumas of France, Hans-Dietrich Genscher of Germany, and Krzysztof Skubiszewski of Poland.[4] Genscher chose Weimar for the inaugural meeting because it was situated in former East Germany.[5]

At the 1992 meeting of the Weimar Triangle in France, Poland won agreement from Germany and France that it should have special association status at the Western European Union, the European arm of NATO.[5]

At the 2011 summit hosted by President Bronisław Komorowski of Poland and attended by President Nicolas Sarkozy (France) and Chancellor Angela Merkel (Germany), the three leaders discussed issues of renewing regular Weimar Triangle meetings and improving relations with Russia (among other topics). Both Germany and France urged Poland to join the Pact for Competitiveness.[6]

On 5 July 2011, France, Germany, and Poland signed an agreement in Brussels to put together a unit of 1,700 soldiers under Polish command, called the Weimar Battlegroup, that was to be ready to deploy in crisis zones starting in 2013. The operational command centre was to be based in Mont Valerien, located in a Paris suburb.[3]

Emblem of the Weimar Battlegroup.

Shortly after the referendum on the status of Crimea held on 16 March 2014, the chairpersons of the Weimar Triangle parliament's committees on foreign affairs – Elisabeth Guigou of France, Norbert Röttgen of Germany and Grzegorz Schetyna of Poland – visited Kyiv to express their countries’ firm support of the territorial integrity and the European integration of Ukraine.[7] This was the first time that parliamentarians of the Weimar Triangle had ever made a joint trip to a third country.[8]

In April 2016, Poland's foreign minister Witold Waszczykowski told daily newspaper Gazeta Wyborcza that the Weimar Triangle had lost its relevance for his country.[9]

On 28 August 2016, representatives of the three countries vowed to "reinvigorate" the Weimar Triangle. German foreign minister Frank-Walter Steinmeier said the group would meet before the end of 2016, and French foreign minister Jean-Marc Ayrault said France would host a summit in November 2016. The stated reasoning for this reinvigoration were the decision of the United Kingdom to leave the European Union, as well as the ongoing European migrant crisis.[10]

On 8 February 2022, the meeting between Presidents Emmanuel Macron, Andrzej Duda and Chancellor Olaf Scholz took place in Berlin to discuss security cooperation in the face of the ongoing Russo-Ukrainian crisis. This was the first such trilateral meeting between the three heads of states in many years (although this is technically false, since Scholz is not in fact Germany's head of state), and was seen as a step towards strengthening the Weimar Triangle format. At a joint press conference President Duda appealed for unity among European leaders saying that "We must show that we speak in one voice". The German Chancellor stressed that any violation of Ukraine's sovereignty and territorial integrity was "unacceptable" and would have "far-reaching consequences for Russia in political, economic and geo-strategic dimensions" while President Macron reinforced France's determination to use diplomatic efforts which he said were "the only path to end the conflict around Ukraine."[11]

On 12 June 2023, the leaders of the Weimar Triangle, Scholz, Macron and Duda met at the group's summit held in Paris to discuss a number of foreign policy issues the most important of which was the Russian invasion of Ukraine. The leaders reaffirmed their "unwavering support" for Ukraine and declared to assist the country in its defence efforts against Russia’s aggression politically, with humanitarian aid, financially and also by supplying arms.[12] Among the topics discussed was also Ukraine’s future membership in the European Union and the NATO alliance.[13]

Formations (government)[edit]

Ministers of Foreign Affairs[edit]

Twentieth anniversary of the Weimar Triangle, stage conversation between Hans-Dietrich Genscher (Germany), Tadeusz Mazowiecki (Poland), Klaus-Heinrich Standke (moderator) and Roland Dumas (France) in Weimar on 29 August 2011.
  1. 28–29 August 1991 in Weimar, Germany: Hans-Dietrich Genscher, Roland Dumas, Krzysztof Skubiszewski[14]
  2. 23–24 April 1992 in Bergerac, France: Hans-Dietrich Genscher, Roland Dumas, Krzysztof Skubiszewski
  3. 11–12 November 1993 in Warsaw, Poland: Klaus Kinkel, Alain Juppé, Andrzej Olechowski
  4. 14–15 September 1994 in Bamberg, Germany: Klaus Kinkel, Alain Juppé, Andrzej Olechowski
  5. 26 October 1995 in Paris, France: Klaus Kinkel, Hervé de Charette, Władysław Bartoszewski
  6. 19 December 1996 in Warsaw, Poland: Klaus Kinkel, Hervé de Charette, Dariusz Rosati
  7. 19 November 1997 in Frankfurt/Oder, Germany: Klaus Kinkel, Hubert Védrine, Dariusz Rosati
  8. 6 January 1999 in Paris, France: Joschka Fischer, Hubert Védrine, Bronisław Geremek
  9. 30 August 1999 in Weimar, Germany: Joschka Fischer, Hubert Védrine, Bronisław Geremek
  10. 7 June 2000 in Kraków, Poland: Joschka Fischer, Hubert Védrine, Bronisław Geremek
  11. 23 April 2002 in Paris, France: Joschka Fischer, Hubert Védrine, Włodzimierz Cimoszewicz
  12. 16 January 2004 in Berlin, Germany: Joschka Fischer, Dominique de Villepin, Włodzimierz Cimoszewicz[15]
  13. 27 June 2005 in Warsaw, Poland: Joschka Fischer, Philippe Douste-Blazy, Adam Daniel Rotfeld
  14. 17 June 2008 in Paris, France: Frank-Walter Steinmeier, Bernard Kouchner, Radoslaw Sikorski
  15. 26–27 April 2010 in Bonn, Germany: Guido Westerwelle, Bernard Kouchner, Radoslaw Sikorski (with Kostyantyn Gryshchenko from Ukraine as guest)
  16. 23 June 2010 in Paris, France: Guido Westerwelle, Bernard Kouchner, Radoslaw Sikorski (with Sergey Lavrov from Russia as guest)
  17. 20 May 2011 in Bydgoszcz, Poland: Guido Westerwelle, Alain Juppé, Radoslaw Sikorski[16]
  18. 29 February 2012 in Berlin, Germany: Guido Westerwelle, Alain Juppé, Radoslaw Sikorski
  19. 20 February 2014 in Kyiv, Ukraine: Frank-Walter Steinmeier, Laurent Fabius, Radoslaw Sikorski[17]
  20. 31 March-1 April 2014 in Berlin and Weimar, Germany: Frank-Walter Steinmeier, Laurent Fabius, Radoslaw Sikorski[18]
  21. 24 October 2014 in La Celle-Saint-Cloud, France: Frank-Walter Steinmeier, Laurent Fabius and Grzegorz Schetyna
  22. 3 April 2015 in Wrocław, Poland: Frank-Walter Steinmeier, Laurent Fabius and Grzegorz Schetyna[19]
  23. 28–29 August 2016 in Weimar and Berlin, Germany: Frank-Walter Steinmeier, Jean-Marc Ayrault, Witold Waszczykowski[20][21]
  24. 15 October 2020 in Paris, France: Heiko Maas, Jean-Yves Le Drian, Zbigniew Rau[22]
  25. 10 September 2021 in Weimar, Germany: Heiko Maas, Jean-Yves Le Drian, Zbigniew Rau[23]
  26. 1 March 2022 in Łódź, Poland: Annalena Baerbock, Jean-Yves Le Drian, Zbigniew Rau[24]

Heads of state and government[edit]

Meeting of leaders of Weimar Triangle and Visegrád Group in Warsaw, 2013
  1. 21 September 1993 in Gdańsk, Poland: Richard von Weizsäcker, François Mitterrand, Lech Wałęsa
  2. 21 February 1998 in Poznań, Poland: Helmut Kohl, Jacques Chirac, Aleksander Kwaśniewski
  3. 7 May 1999 in Nancy, France: Gerhard Schröder, Jacques Chirac, Aleksander Kwaśniewski
  4. 27 February 2001 in Hambach, Germany: Gerhard Schröder, Jacques Chirac, Aleksander Kwaśniewski
  5. 9 May 2003 in Wrocław, Poland (held a few days before the referendum on the entry of Poland in the European Union): Gerhard Schröder, Jacques Chirac, Aleksander Kwaśniewski
  6. 19 May 2005 in Nancy, France: Gerhard Schröder, Jacques Chirac, Aleksander Kwaśniewski[25]
  7. 5 December 2006 in Mettlach, Germany: Angela Merkel, Jacques Chirac, Lech Kaczynski[26]
  8. 7 February 2011 in Warsaw, Poland: Angela Merkel, Nicolas Sarkozy, Bronisław Komorowski[27]
  9. 6 March 2013 in Warsaw, Poland: Angela Merkel, François Hollande, Donald Tusk (jointly with leaders of the Visegrád Group)
  10. 8 February 2022 in Berlin, German: Olaf Scholz, Emmanuel Macron, Andrzej Duda[11]
  11. 12 June 2023 in Paris, France: Olaf Scholz, Emmanuel Macron, Andrzej Duda[28]

Summit on 3 July 2006 in Weimar, Germany was postponed due to alleged indisposition of the Polish president Lech Kaczyński.

Ministers of European Affairs[edit]

  1. 26 May 2003 in Warsaw, Poland: Hans Martin Bury, Noëlle Lenoir, Danuta Hübner
  2. 22 October 2004 in Warsaw, Poland: Hans Martin Bury, Claudie Haigneré, Jarosław Pietras
  3. 7 November 2008 in Paris, France: Günter Gloser, Pierre Lellouche, Mikołaj Dowgielewicz
  4. 1 February 2010 in Warsaw, Poland: Werner Hoyer, Jean-Pierre Jouyet, Mikołaj Dowgielewicz
  5. 22 September 2011 in Berlin, Germany: Werner Hoyer, Jean Leonetti, Mikołaj Dowgielewicz[29]
  6. 16 March 2012 in Antibes, France: Michael Georg Link, Jean Leonetti, Mikołaj Dowgielewicz
  7. 1 October 2012 in Warsaw, Poland: Michael Georg Link, Thierry Repentin, Piotr Serafin
  8. 16 July 2013 in Bad Wimpfen, Germany: Michael Georg Link, Bernard Cazeneuve, Piotr Serafin[30]
  9. 10 July 2014 in Warsaw, Poland: Michael Roth, Harlem Désir, Piotr Serafin
  10. 26 September 2014 in Herleshausen, Germany: Michael Roth, Harlem Désir, Rafał Trzaskowski
  11. 30 September 2015 in Paris, France: Michael Roth, Harlem Désir, Rafał Trzaskowski
  12. 14 June 2016 in Warsaw, Poland: Michael Roth, Harlem Désir, Konrad Szymański
  13. 21 January 2020 in Lens, Pas-de-Calais, France: Michael Roth, Amélie de Montchalin, Konrad Szymański[31]
  14. 15–16 September 2022 in Poznań, Poland: Anna Lührmann, Laurence Boone, Konrad Szymański[32][33]
  15. 11 May 2023 in Eltville, Germany: Anna Lührmann, Laurence Boone, Szymon Szynkowski vel Sęk[34]
  16. 17–18 July 2023 in Skopje, North Macedonia: Anna Lührmann, Laurence Boone, Szymon Szynkowski vel Sęk[35][36]

Ministers of Defence[edit]

  1. 12 February 1999 in Kraków, Poland: Rudolf Scharping, Alain Richard, Janusz Onyszkiewicz[37]
  2. 29 September 2004 in Heiligendamm, Germany: Peter Struck, Michèle Alliot-Marie, Jerzy Szmajdziński[38][39]
  3. 25 July 2006 in Wieliczka, Poland: Franz Josef Jung, Michèle Alliot-Marie, Radoslaw Sikorski[40]
  4. 31 March 2015 in Berlin, Germany: Ursula von der Leyen, Jean-Yves Le Drian, Tomasz Siemoniak[41]

Ministers of Finance[edit]

  1. 18 July 2003 in Berlin, Germany: Hans Eichel, Francis Mer, Andrzej Raczko
  2. 6 July 2015 in Warsaw, Poland: Wolfgang Schäuble, Michel Sapin, Mateusz Szczurek
  3. 19 January 2016 in Berlin, Germany: Wolfgang Schäuble, Michel Sapin, Paweł Szałamacha[42]
  4. 22 February 2017 in Paris, France: Wolfgang Schäuble, Michel Sapin, Mateusz Morawiecki[43]
  5. 28 June 2023 in Weimar, Germany: Christian Lindner, Bruno Le Maire, Magdalena Rzeczkowska[44]

Ministers of Internal Affairs[edit]

  1. 24 July 2013 in Kraków, Poland: Hans-Peter Friedrich, Manuel Valls, Bartłomiej Sienkiewicz[45]

Ministers of the Environment[edit]

  1. 15 July 2013 in Warsaw, Poland: Peter Altmaier, Philippe Martin, Marcin Korolec[46]
  2. 26 February 2014 in Berlin, Germany: Barbara Hendricks, Philippe Martin, Maciej Grabowski[47]

Ministers for Economic Affairs[edit]

  1. 7 February 2014 in Kraków, Poland: Sigmar Gabriel, Arnaud Montebourg, Janusz Piechociński
  2. 4 July 2019 in Poznań, Poland: Peter Altmaier, Bruno Le Maire, Jadwiga Emilewicz[48]
  3. 5 May 2021 in Paris, France: Peter Altmaier, Bruno Le Maire, Jarosław Gowin[49]

Ministers of Agriculture[edit]

  1. 2 September 2014 in Bonn, Germany: Christian Schmidt, Stéphane Le Foll, Marek Sawicki
  2. 31 August 2015 in Berlin, Germany: Christian Schmidt, Stéphane Le Foll, Marek Sawicki[50]
  3. 7 October 2019 in Warsaw, Poland: Julia Klöckner, Didier Guillaume, Jan Krzysztof Ardanowski[51]

Formations (parliament)[edit]

Committees on Foreign Affairs[edit]

  1. 19–20 March 2007 in Berlin, Germany

Speakers of Parliament[edit]

  1. 29 May 2010 in Essen, Germany: Norbert Lammert, Bernard Accoyer, Bronisław Komorowski[52]
  2. 5 July 2013 in Kraków, Poland: Norbert Lammert, Claude Bartolone, Ewa Kopacz[53]
  3. 16 June 2016 in Paris, France: Norbert Lammert, Claude Bartolone, Marek Kuchciński[54]

Committees on Defence[edit]

  1. 9 June 2011 in Berlin, Germany[55]

Committees on European Affairs[edit]

  1. 2012 in Paris, France
  2. 2013 in Gdańsk, Poland
  3. 13–14 November 2014 in Berlin, Germany
  4. 2016 in France
  5. 2018 in Poland
  6. 13 May 2019 in Berlin, Germany[56]

Further reading[edit]

  • Kończal, Kornelia (2020), An Inspiring and Intimidating Relationship: Franco-German Cooperation from the Polish Perspective, in: Nicole Colin und Claire Demesmay (ed.): Franco-German Relations Seen from Abroad: Post-war Reconciliation in International Perspectives, Cham, Springer, p. 69–89.
  • Kończal, Kornelia (2023), Über den Tellerrand: Dritte in den deutsch-polnischen Beziehungen, in: Osteuropa, No. 1–2, p. 97–122.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Download World Economic Outlook database: April 2023". imf.org. Retrieved 13 June 2023.
  2. ^ "Download World Economic Outlook database: April 2023". imf.org. Retrieved 13 June 2023.
  3. ^ a b AFP, Germany, France and Poland form EU battlegroup EUbusiness. Retrieved 5 July 2011.
  4. ^ "The Weimar Triangle: Over 30 years of cross-border cooperation between Germany, France and Poland". auswaertiges-amt.de. 4 March 2022. Retrieved 14 June 2023.
  5. ^ a b Sarah Helm (23 May 1996), 'Weimar Triangle' takes shape for power The Independent.
  6. ^ "Szczyt Trójkąta Weimarskiego w Warszawie". Deutsche Welle (in Polish). Retrieved 9 February 2022.
  7. ^ Weimar Triangle countries support the territorial integrity and European integration of Ukraine Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Ukraine, press release of 11 April 2014.
  8. ^ Parlamentarier des Weimarer Dreiecks: Röttgen, Guigou und Schetyna in Kiew Bundestag, press release of 8 April 2014.
  9. ^ Matthias Szczerbaniewicz (6 April 2016), "Weimarer Dreieck" beendet: Polens Abkehr vom alten Europa ZDF.
  10. ^ Shalal, Andrea (28 August 2016). "Germany, Poland and France revive Weimar group to bolster EU confidence". Reuters. Weimar, Germany. Retrieved 28 August 2016.
  11. ^ a b "Polish, French, German leaders meet to discuss Ukraine". Retrieved 9 February 2022.
  12. ^ ""Our strength lies in unity"". bundesregierung.de. 12 June 2023. Retrieved 14 June 2023.
  13. ^ "Polish, French, German leaders voice 'unwavering support' for Ukraine in Paris". polskieradio.pl. 12 June 2023. Retrieved 14 June 2023.
  14. ^ "France-Diplomatie – Ministry of Foreign Affairs and International Development". diplomatie.gouv.fr. Retrieved 5 December 2014.
  15. ^ Derek Scally (15 January 2004), German and Polish ministers meet Irish Times.
  16. ^ Judy Dempsey (20 May 2011), France Joins Poland and Germany on Wider Unity International Herald Tribune.
  17. ^ Philip Oltermann and Paul Lewis (21 February 2014), EU foreign ministers agree sanctions against Ukrainian officials The Guardian.
  18. ^ Timothy Jones (23 May 1996), Germany, France, Poland call for new EU approach to eastern neighbors Deutsche Welle.
  19. ^ Joint Communique of the Weimar Triangle Foreign Ministers Frank-Walter Steinmeier (Germany), Laurent Fabius (France), and Grzegorz Schetyna (Poland) in Wrocław, 3 April 2015 Federal Foreign Office of Germany, press release of 3 April 2015.
  20. ^ Andrea Shalal (28 August 2016), Germany, Poland and France revive Weimar group to bolster EU confidence Reuters.
  21. ^ Weimar Triangle – Meeting between Jean-Marc Ayrault and his German and Polish counterparts (Weimar and Berlin, 28-29 August 2016) Ministry of Foreign Affairs and International Development, press release of 26 August 2016.
  22. ^ "Polish FM says perception of EU future in Weimar Triangle is similar". Retrieved 15 October 2020.
  23. ^ "Germany will not abandon Poland in face of border crisis – minister". Retrieved 10 September 2021.
  24. ^ Dominique Vidalon (1 March 2022), France, Germany, Poland committed to strengthening Ukraine's integration with EU Reuters.
  25. ^ 3 countries join forces to endorse EU charter New York Times, 20 May 2005.
  26. ^ Ansgar Graw (5 December 2006), Merkel wirbt bei Chirac für härtere Gangart gegenüber der Türkei Die Welt.
  27. ^ Konrad Schuller (7 February 2011), „Weimarer Dreieck“ : Merkel und Sarkozy für Teilnahme Polens am EU-Pakt Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung.
  28. ^ "France to intensify arms delivery to help Ukraine counter-offensive -Macron". reuters.com. 12 June 2023. Retrieved 13 June 2023.
  29. ^ Andreas Rinke (22 September 2011), Proposal to modify EU treaty draws scepticism Reuters.
  30. ^ Treffen des Weimarer Dreiecks der Europaminister, 15./16.07.2013, Heilbronn/ Bad Wimpfen Federal Foreign Office, press release of 9 July 2013.
  31. ^ "Weimar Triangle – Amélie de Montchalin's meeting with her German and Polish counterparts (Lens, 21 Jan. 2020)". France Diplomate. Ministry for Europe and Foreign Affairs (France). Retrieved 25 April 2020.
  32. ^ „Weimarer Dreieck“: Wir stehen zusammen als Partner in Europa Federal Foreign Office, press release of 16 September 2022.
  33. ^ Weimar Triangle – Meeting between Laurence Boone and her German and Polish counterparts (Kloster Eberbach, Germany, 15-16 September 2022) Ministry for Europe and Foreign Affairs, press release of 16 September 2022.
  34. ^ Staatsministerin Anna Lührmann anlässlich des Treffens des Weimarer Dreiecks am 11. Mai Federal Foreign Office, press release of 11 May 2023.
  35. ^ North Macedonia – Visit by Laurence Boone, Minister of State for Europe, attached to the Minister for Europe and Foreign Affairs (17-18 July 2023) Ministry for Europe and Foreign Affairs, press release of 17 July 2023.
  36. ^ Polish, French, German ministers visit North Macedonia Polskie Radio, 18 July 2023.
  37. ^ Die deutsch-polnische Beziehungen Deutschlandfunk, 12 February 1999.
  38. ^ Bundeswehr: Spekulationen um Standortschließungen Die Welt, 29 September 2004.
  39. ^ Les ministres de la Défense veulent s'accorder sur l'Irak L'Obs, 29 September 2004.
  40. ^ Weimarer Dreieck: Deutschland, Frankreich und Polen fordern starkes Mandat für Nahost-Friedenstruppe Der Spiegel, 25 July 2006.
  41. ^ MoD Siemoniak: EU needs new security strategy Polskie Radio, 31 March 2015.
  42. ^ Albrecht Meier (19 January 2016), Flüchtlingskrise: Polen: Berlin muss das Problem bewältigen Der Tagesspiegel.
  43. ^ Sapin convaincu que les Français "sauront faire obstacle" à Le Pen Le Point, 22 February 2017.
  44. ^ Karsten Seibel (28 June 2023), Polen fordert Schulden-Ausnahme für Militärausgaben Die Welt.
  45. ^ Meetings of the interior ministers of the Weimar Triangle Ministry of Interior, press release of 1 August 2013.
  46. ^ Dagmar Dehmer (16 July 2013), Klimaschutz: Polen, Frankreich und Deutschland kommen sich nicht näher Der Tagesspiegel.
  47. ^ Róża Romaniec (26 February 2014), Francja proponuje kompromis ws. żywności modyfikowanej genetycznie Deutsche Welle.
  48. ^ Altmaier: „Westbalkankonferenz ist eine Erfolgsgeschichte“ Federal Ministry for Economic Affairs and Climate Action, press release of 4 July 2019.
  49. ^ Point presse conjoint de Bruno Le Maire, Peter Altmaier et Jaroslaw Gowin dans le contexte du Triangle de Weimar mercredi 5 mai à 14 h 45 Ministry of Economics and Finance, press release of 5 May 2021.
  50. ^ Milch: Ringen um Maßnahmen gegen Preisverfall Stuttgarter Nachrichten, 31 August 2015.
  51. ^ Landwirtschaftsminister des Weimarer Dreiecks unterzeichnen Zwölf-Punkte-Erklärung: Auskömmliches Agrarbudget ist Voraussetzung für neue Anforderungen in der GAP Federal Ministry of Food and Agriculture, 7 October 2019.
  52. ^ Gemeinsame Erklärung der Parlamentspräsidien Bundestag, press release of 29 May 2010.
  53. ^ „Europäische Standards beginnen sich durchzusetzen“ Bundestag, press release of 8 July 2013.
  54. ^ Attentat überschattet Parlamentsgipfel in Paris Bundestag, press release of 17 June 2016.
  55. ^ „EU-Sicherheitspolitik parlamentarisch kontrollieren“ Bundestag, press release of 9 June 2011.
  56. ^ Schäuble: Überwindung der Teilung Europas nicht gefährden Bundestag, press release of 13 May 2019.